• behavioural explanation to phobias: classical conditioning explains the initiantion of phobias through association. operant conditioning explains the maintenance of the phobia 
  • Little albert 'white rat' example. 
  • i am scared of spiders, so i avoid them. if i avoid them, it reduces my anxiety. therfore, by avoidance i am rewarded. this is called negative reinforcement (operant conditioning)
  • what if phobias are genetic? the diathesis stress model says phobias arise from gene-environment interaction. 
  • Two-process model is oversimplifies - not everyone who has a traumatic event with a dog is scared of them 
  • systematic desensitisation - counter conditioning, relaxation techniques, fear hierachy. 
  • flooding - full exposure to the feared situation. in vivo/ in vitro
  • SD - can be self administered, in vivo (real) is more successful
  • Flooding - very traumatic procedure, CHOY (more effective than SD) 
  • cognitive explanations for deprssion - Becks negative triad
  • negetaive schemas- self, world, future trapped in a negative thinking cycle
  • Ellis' ABC model- based on irrational beliefs and consequences from an activating event 
  • Mustabatory thinking - thinking certain ideas must be true for someone to be happy (must be approved and accepted by society etc)
  • Many practical applications in the success of CBT 
  • CBT blames the client rather than the…


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