is language nature or nurture? does it set humans apart from say; gorillas, orang-utans, chimpanzees, bonobos. language is a small number of signals (sounds, letters, gestures) that by themselves are meaningless, but can be put together according to certain rules to make an infinate number of messages. eg subject-verb-object.
- use of the vocal/ auditory channel
- arbitariness (use of symbols or words to denote objects)
- semanticity (use of symbols to mean or refer to objects/ actions).
- culture transmission (handing down the language from generation to generation).
- spontaneous usage (freely initiating speech).
- turn- taking (conversation is a two way process)
- duality (organisation into basic sounds and combinations or sequences of these)
- displacement (reference to things not present in time or space)
- structure dependence (the patterned nature of language and use of "structured chunks" eg word order.
- creativity/ productivity- ability to produce and understand an infinite number of novel uterances including combining words to increase meaning.
ethnocentric- means comparing or evaluating other cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standerds and customs of one's own culture.
syntax- the arrangement of words to form well-developed sentences.
language comprehension or language production
chimps lack the vocal chords to learn the human language. so they learn ASL. so…