cognitive psychology- loftus and palmer- reconstruction of automobile destruction
the first thing to remember is that the human memory is reconstructive. the information processing approach works as follows;
- input- through one of the senses
- processing- this occurs using currently installed software (previous experience and knowledge)
- response- which may be action or chosen inaction
cognitive psychology covers- memory. perception, language, thinking and attention.
memory- the ability to retain information and demonstrate retention through behaviour.
amnesics-are people who have lost their memory
schema theory-endel tulving
episodic memory-memory of episodes
semantic episodes- memory of facts
bower, black and turner did a study and found that 73% of 32 people who went to a resturant, recorded the same six events including paying the bill.
how do schemata affect memories?
- a schema guides the selection of what is encoded and stored in memory.
- schema theory was introduced by frederick bartlett. he explained why people left out details and included rationlisations to their stories.
- you abstract information from events. this means that you take out and store only some of the information from different events, if there are a number of them that are similar.
- because we have integrated lots of information into our schemata, they help us to interpret different situations about which we have very limited knowledge.
- memories can also be distorted to fit prior expectations, and in order to make them consistant with your existing schemata they may actually be transformed. this is how eyewitness testimony gets blurred- you see what you expect to see.
- a schema may also aid retrival. you can sometimes remeber what happened by searching through the information you have already stored in a schema, to see if you recognise what is required.
loftus and palmer (1974) experiment 1
there are two types of information that affect our memory of an…