how do we learn
in this case study we learn about the differnent ways that children learn and wheather aggression comes form nature/nutrture. many people believe that we have an inate capicity for aggression, but that the way we demonstrate it is through learning.
theories of learning
learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour due to past experience.but it may not be a change in behaviour straight away as whatever you have learned may only be apparent when older. for example if you were taught to knit but did not demonstrate to others that you can, they will think you have not learned anything. this does not cause a change in behaviour straight away but you may choose to knit later on in life. learning is hard to measure when you have to somehow measure potential behaviours as changes through learning may not actually occur.
the behaviourist school was established by watson in 1913 and he argued that for psychology to be scientific, it must focus on what could be assesed objectively rather than inferred. the way humans react depends on if it was instinct or by thinking. it is impossible to measure this. a stimulus causes a reaction in a human but there is no way of measuring how that reaction is processed.an example would be if a cat bites your leg you could react on instinct and kick the cat away or you could think and pour a bucket of water over the cat instead!
operant and classical conditioning
B.F S kinner's theory of learning is known as operant conditoning. he was a behaviouist and believed that behaviour is learned either by posative or negative reinforcement. as humans we are designed to repeat the actions that gave a posative result and not repeat the actions that gave a negative result.this theory also works for the behaviour of animals.an example of classical conditiong could be when you were younger. you lived in a really big house that for you to know dinner was ready the butler would have to make a gong sound. so when you leave home and you hear a gong sound, you associate that sound with food. obviously you know that a gong sound is not related to food but you have found a connection between the two.
pavlov and classical conditioning
classical conditiong was demonstrated by ivan pavlov in 1927 after he learned that he could teach dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell rather than at the sight or smell of food.salivation was a reflex response.it is important to know that classical conditioning involves training someone to produce a reflex response to something. pavlov's experiments demonstrated the role of the automatic nervous system.
food (unconditioned stimulus)= slobbering (unconditioned response)
food (unconditioned response + bell (conditioned stimulus)=slobbering
bell (conditioned stimulus)=slobbering (conditioned response)
the most important part of this concept is that it is possible to teach someone to respond with a reflex action to a certain stimulus. if we accept the idea…