FARRINGTON ET AL.
411 boys from east London. Longitudinal study, interviews and criminal records. Persisters and Desisters, chronic offenders have young mums and disrupted families.
Theory of differential association. Learn through verbal communication, intimate personal groups. Become a better criminal due to repeated contact with criminals, not inherited.
WIKSTROM AND TAFEL.
Nearly 2000 students from Peterborough. Cross-sectional study, interviews. Propensity induced, (personality), lifestyle dependant, (high risk lifestyle), situationaly limited, (substance abuse).
YOCHELSON AND SAMENOW.
255 Males but only 30 completed. Longitudinal, interviews, no control group. 52 thinking errors, showed criminals lie, thinking errors are not unique to criminals but more are displayed by them.
58 boys from Chicago. 2 hours interview with 10 dilemmas. Supports stages, consistent across cultures, change from 6 to 5 stages.
GUDJOHNSSON AND BOWNES.
80 criminals. 20 violent, 40 sexual, 20 property. 42 item blame attribution inventory (BAI), internal, external and guilt. All offenders scored a higher mean BAI score for guilt. Cross validated with earlier studies.
Review article using Neurological and Brain imaging. Low resting heart rate more likely to commit crimes, still forming connections up to early 20’s, Early intervention will reverse biological deficits.
BRUNNER ET AL.
5 males, family in the Netherlands. Urine samples, case study. Deficit of MAOA enzyme, X chromosome was affected by a point mutation; MAOA breaks down serotonin, not all males affected.
DALY AND WILSON.
Secondary data (Police records, demographic). Chicago, male, Correlation. Strong negative with life expectancy and homicide rates. Explanation: Parents do not show an interest as they also have a low life expectancy.
BRUCE ET AL.
Experiment 1. 30 staff and students Stirling university, paid £2. 10 Celebrities, 40 composites, match. Whole and external 35%, Internal 19.5%. Experiment 2. 48 Undergraduates. Photo line-up, select celeb to match composite. External 42%, Internal 24%.
LOFTUS ET AL.
36 students, university of Washington paid or extra credit. Control was a cheque, Experiment was a gun. Questionnaire: 20 item multiple choice and identification with confidence scale. Control 38.9% correct, Exp 11.1% correct, no difference in confidence.
FISHER ET AL.
16 detectives, robbery division, Florida, minimum of 5 year experience. Field experiment, record a selection of interviews 88. Half trained In Cognitive interview, 7 completed, interviews recorded and all analysed by a team at California Uni blind to conditions. Trained got 47% more info tan before and 63% more than untrained. Cognitive interview takes longer.
MANN ET AL.
99 Kent police officers. Detect lies in real life interviews 14 suspects showing head and torso, 54 clips (6-145 seconds), once finished their decision and confidence was given. No difference in ability to detect truth or lies, cues to detect lies (gaze, contradiction), more experience better they were at detecting lies.
INBAU ET AL.
1- Direct confrontation.
2- Chance to shift blame.
3- Not allowed to deny guilt.
4- Ignore their reasons.
5- Reinforce sincerity.
6- Suspect cries infer guilt.
7- Two choices both will be…