Psychodynamic Essay (12 marks)


Sigmund Freud was a medical doctor in the 1900's who wanted to develop a theory which could be applied to everyone. At the time, people with mental illnesses were put into asylums and given frontal lobotomy operations which usually resulted in death. Freud developed his psychosexual theory stating that abnormality is caused by conflicts in our development and spent his career trying to cure his patients of neurosis (mental health issues). He believed the way to do this was to access the unconscious mind.

Freud stated there were three main parts of the mind; the conscious, which holds thoughts that the individual is aware of, the pre-conscious which holds thoughts and emotions that can be accessed but are not actually conscious. This includes humour, personality, behaviour and Freudian slips. Finally, the unconscious (the largest part of the mind) where violent and sexual impulses are stored; this section of the mind drives and influences our behaviour. Freud used psychoanalysis to access the unconscious. These therapies developed by Freud included dream analysis, free association and projective tests to enter the unconscious part of the mind.

Three parts of the personality were also introduced by Freud. These are the id, which is what we are born with, or desires instant gratification and is the pleasure principle which is the demanding aspect of our personality. This part operated in the unconscious only. The ego, develops at 18 months old and is the reality principle which will try and obtain what the id wants. Finally, the superego, develops at 4 years old and is the morality principle which consists of two parts; the conscience (what is right and wrong in society) and the ego ideal (what people think they should be like).

Freud also stated the presence of energy. He said that we all have energy which doesn't change, it remains with us out whole life. Some of this energy is Libido which means sexual energy. This also included 'Eros' the life instinct, and 'Thanatos' the fear of death. These operate in…


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