Cognitive Explanations: Gender Schema Theory: Martin + Halverson (81)
- two key factors that differentiate from Kohlberg’s theory: 1. Process of acquiring gender relavant info happens before gender consistency is achieved and 2. How the acquisition of stereotypes/schema affects later behaviour especially in terms of memory + attention
1. Schemas: Children learn schemas from interactions with other people as well as media. Schemas organise + structure info. Learn what toys + clothes are appropriate for gender
2. Ingroup and outgroup schema: Children more interested in, ingroup (same sex) that out-group (opposite sex) schemas. Once a child has identified with a group leads them to positively evaluate their group + negatively evaluate the other. Child likes to be with their own group and to avoid behaviours of the other.
3. Resilience of Gender Beliefs: Gender beliefs lead children to hold fixed gender attitudes + ignore info they encounter that’s not consistent with ingroup info. E.G. if a boy sees a film with a male nurse info is ignored as man is not behaving consistently with boys ingroup schema + doesn’t want to change it.
✓Gender stereotypes without constancy:
Martin + Little (1990) found children…