Uncontrolled violence is not the best behavioural strategy because there's a risk of injury. Therefore it's better to use aggression tactically.
Lorenz said that ritualised displays of aggression are when two opponents may each other believe they would loose the fight. Potential risk is avoided if the looser backs down and runs away. s
- Clutton-Brock (1979) threat of violence can be a successful strategy in competition for resources
- Frosdick and Marsh (2005) - football fans chant to taunt the rivals, but are careful not to descend to actual violence.
Evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) = a type of behaviour…