FORMATION OF RELATIONSHIPS
- 2 theories
- reward/need satisfaction theory (byrne & clore, 1970): this theory says that we find people attracting who are satisfying and gratifying to be with. we want to be rewarded because it brings positive feelings in us, and avoid punishing stimuli as that brings negative feelings in us. OPERANT CONDITIONING explains how we repeat behaviour which lead to rewards and avoid behaviour that leads to punishments. This theory therefore suggests that we enter relationships because the person is an direct reinforcement (creating positive feelings in us) making them more attractive. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING explains that we like people who are associated with pleasent events. A previously neutral stimulus can become postively valued because of their association with an pleasent event. Byrne and Clore claimed that relationships where positive feelings outweigh the negative feelings, is more likely to suceed and develope.
- similarity theory (byrne, clore & smeaton, 1986): this model shows 2 distinct stages of formation of relationships. People avoid those who are dissimiliar to them, those people left behind, the person chooses a partner who is more similar to them in terms of personality and attitudes. Byrne et al's model emphasises on 2 factors which is personality and attitudes. research such as BERSCHEID & REIS shows that people are attracted more to those who have similar personality traits than those whose traits are dissimilar. for example 2 people who are hard working are more likely to be attracted than 2 people, where one is hard working and the other is lazy. However, opposite people do tend to attract but research such as HERBERNER AND CASPI have shown that married couples with similar personalities tend to be more happier than those who are not…