Protein Synthesis.

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Genes are sections of DNA found on chromosomes.

They code for amino acids. some have more than one code, eg. Arginine.

DNA is too big to leave the nucleus, so it is copied to RNA (Transcription). RNA can then bind to ribosome and synthesise protein (translation.)

mRNA is messenger RNA, it is found in the nucleus. It carries genetic code from the nucleus to cytoplasm.

tRNA is transfer RNA. it is found in the cytoplasm, it has an amino acid binding site at one end and an anticodon at the other end. It carries amino acids to ribosomes.


RNA polymerase attaches to the DNA double-helix at the beginning of a gene.

The hydrogen bonds between the two DNA strands break, unwinding the DNA.

One strand is used as a template strand to make an mRNA copy.

RNA polymerase lines up free RNA nucleotides along the template strand. 

They are complementary. This creates a complementary copy of the template strand, mRNA.

mRNA moves out of the nucleus through a nuclear pore and attaches to a ribosome in the cytoplasm...


mRNA attaches to a ribosome and tRNA carries amino acids to the ribosome.

tRNA has an anticodon. It is complementary to the first codon on mRNA. It binds.

Another tRNA binds to the next codon.

The amino acids…


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