- The order of the bases on a DNA strand forms the genetic code.
- There are only four bases (Adenine A; cytosine C; guanine G; thymine T) but they can be arranged in an sequence, for example ATTAGCG
- There are 20 different amino acids in human proteins.
- A cell uses the sequence of bases in DNA to synthesise (build) chains of these amino acids
- These chains then form protein. This process is called protein synthesis
- Each amino acid is identified by a different group of bases.
- A specific order of bases in DNA produces a specific order of amino acids in the chain and so produces a particular protein.
- The process of making a protein takes place in two stages. The first is transcription, which take place inside the nucleus.
- Here, the DNA in a gene unzips by breaking the weak hydrogen bonds between bases in the double helix
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