Problem of Evil - Defences
There are various other defences or counter arguments to that of which the problem of evil represents.
Free will defence
The free-will defence incorporates the notion of free-will underlined in the Augustinian and Irenaen theodicies. It's based on the premise that moral evil stems from the free will God gave us. This free will is need because without it:
- We could not truly love God as the love would be forced
- We would not being doing actual good because we were forced to do it and may not have any desire to do good at all, we would just be carrying out a forced action which would result in goodness
Supporters of the free-will defence argue that divine intervention would compromise human freedom thus preventing human development. Swinburne used the example of death – death brings about suffering but is necessary to ensure humans take their responsibilities seriously. He wrote: 'If there is always a second chance there is no risk.'
This was developed by A.N. Whitehead and relies upon the assertion that God is not omnipotent, and it not even the God of Classical Theism therefore. It states that God did not create the universe, the universe is a 'uncreated process which includes a deity' (David Griffin). In other words, God is part of the world and is bound by natural laws. God's role in…