Principles Of Training

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Specificity- The training must be relevant to the sport the athlete is training for, for example it must use the correct energy systems, muscle groups and muscle fibres that the athlete would be using in their sport.

It must also be specific to the athlete's fitness levels, for example there is no point in a weight lifter trying to perform 5 reps of a 50KG weight, when his one rep max is 45KG.

Progression- The training should increase in difficulty throughout the prgramme in order to make sure that you are constantly overloading.

Overload- The body must be made to work harder than it normally does in order for there to be any adaptions. As the athlete progresses, the level must be made harder in order to keep overloading.

This is achieved by adjusting:

- The Frequency of training.

- The Intensity of the training.

- The Time/duration of training.

Reversibility- If the athlete stops training, then the work they have done will be reversed three times quicker than it was gained. The decrease in muscle cell size caused by inactivity is called atrophy.

Tedium- To prevent boredom and keep motivation levels high, the athlete must vary their training activities. This will also prevent stress injuries such as osteoarthritis and shin splints.

Moderation- Training should be regulated so that the body isn't overworked. This should be done by leaving rest days between training days, leaving rest periods between individual activities, and working different muscle groups, not just the same one constantly. This will prevent stress injuries.


The main aim of periodisation is to make sure that the athlete gets progressively fitter in order to reach their peak at a certian time.

Macro Cycles- These are long term training programmes aimed at reaching a long term goal. For example a sprinter may have a four year cycle aiming to reach peak fitness at


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