Presentation drawings notes

Drawing tools

equipment and templates

  • pair of compasses- used with a pencil or technical pen, draw accurate circles or arcs, used for working drawings
  • protractor- measures angles, plastic, either circular or semi-circular
  • ruler- a 300mm ruler is used for measuring in any part of your design stage
  • scale ruler- has different scales so you can draw working drawing and spend less time working out the measurements
  • set square- draw specific angles for orthographic and isometric drawing, two main types= 45 degree and 30/60 degree, used with a drawing board
  • drawing board- a board with parallel motion to help do working drawings by hand
  • ellipse template- different size circles and guides so you know where the centre is, easier than using a pair of compasses for small circles
  • french curves/ flexible curves- help to draw arcs, flexi curve can be adjusted to any arc you need


  • graphite pencils- used for shading and toning ideas, 2H and 6H used for construction lines
  • coloured pencils- used for light shading and toning on your design ideas, available in water soluble/pastel or graphite
  • mechanical pencils- contain a push mechanism to eject the lead through the tip, more accurate than normal graphite pencils


  • fineline black technical pens- for sketching/outlines, commonly used in size 0.5, useful to have in sizes 0.1, 0.3 and 0.7
  • marker pens- cover larger areas with colour, available in wide range of colours/tones
  • fibre tipped pens- for bold shading/outlining, water based/spirit based, good for sketching design ideas, cheaper than fineline technical pens

Plan drawings


  • written as a ratio

scale representations

  • working drawings are produced by designers in industry
  • achictects use scale picture representations of household items in plan view
  • exhibition and interior designers also produce scale drawings, but not as detailed as architects

building drawings

  • interior designers design the inside of a building to show where furniture, lighting and electrics are positioned
  • architects can draw plans in different views- front and rear elevation, side elevation, plan view

planometric technique

  • gives you a 3D impression of a product or interior
  • you can draw the plan view to scale and then tilt it to either 45 degrees/45 degrees or 60 degrees/30 degrees
  • the hiehgt needs to be reduced to 3/4 of the actual size in a 45 degree planometric or it will look too tall

methods of enlarging

  • overhead projector- photocopy onto transparent film, then project onto the surface you need to draw onto
  • photocopier- reduces and enlarges
  • computer software- scans an image and reduces or enlarges

recongnising different shapes

  • triangle- 3 sided. one of the strongest structural shapes
  • quadrilateral- 4 sided
  • polygon- multi sided
  • ellipse- inclined circle

Isometric projection

isometric projection

  • can be used to produce a 3D object to scale
  • uses 30 degree/ 60 degree angles
  • use a grid sheet or a 30 degree/60 degree set square

exploded drawings

  • used to show how an object fits together


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