Population Change


Population Change- AS Level AQA Geography



·      Population indicators- vital rates i.e birth rates etc for countries at different stages of development

·      Population change- DTM (5 stages) validity and application in countries at different stages of development

·      Population structures- at different stages of DTM, impact of migration, implications of different structures for the balance between population and resources

·      Socio-economic and political implications…. 2 case studies of countries at different stages of development

·      The ways natural population change and migration affects rural and urban areas

·      Settlement case studies

·      The implications of the above for social welfare



Population is the study of human kind in all its aspects, otherwise known as demography; divided into key areas such as distribution or into characteristics such as age and gender.

Vital rates are important in displaying such aspects of the study of population; the rates of these vary from place to place due a number of factors, mostly the development of an area. Vital rates are rates of components of the population i.e. birth/death rates.


·      Birth rates- number of live births per thousand people of the total population per year. Below 10 is low, 15-20 average, above 30 high

·      Death rates- number of deaths per thousand people of the total population per year. Below 10 is low, above 20 is high

·      Natural Increase- BR exceeds DR expressed as a percentage- Natural Decrease is the opposite (DR exceeds BR)

·      Fertility rate- the average number of children a woman will have

·      Infant Mortality Rate- the number of children that die under the age of 1 per 1000 live births per year

·      Life expectancy- the average age of life

·      Net migration rate- the difference between immigrants and emigrants in area within a time period per 1000

·      Replacement rate- the number of births required to keep the population size stable but does not account for migration

E.G BR 18/1000 DR 8/1000 18-8= 10 10/1000= +1% Natural Increase

All of these indicators interact in some way and population can be viewed as a dynamic system; but they’re also outside influences such as migration.

These rates change greatly around the world. For example: LEDC’s are more likely to have a higher death rate than MEDC’s due to the lack of medicines. The Birth rates are also likely to be higher as well as due to availability of contraception, little education for women etc.….

Factors affecting Birth rates/Fertility Rates:

·      Importance of children in labour force i.e. rural areas need children to work in agriculture

·      Urbanisation- urban areas people have better family planning services and children aren’t need to work

·      Education and employment opportunities for women

·      Culture, religion and traditions

·      Legislation i.e. One Child Policy

·      Average marriage age

Factors affecting Death rates/Mortality Rates:



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