Politics -- Core Ideologies + Nationalism

  • Created by: S_webb
  • Created on: 07-01-19 10:51


  • One division within liberalism is the conflict between negative liberties whcih clasiscal liberlas stress (things the government cannot do for you) vs positive liberties (freedoms to which one is entitled) which modern liberals stress.
  • Keynes rejected the market as self-corrective mechanism and encouraged inflationary psending policies during a depression. This has been embraced by modern liberals as a fine-tuning of capitlaism but classical liberals are more sceptical of it given that it requries a high levle of state intervneiton in the economy.
  • Laissez-faire or a handa-off approach to the economy was by contrast advocated by Adam Smith ("the invisible hand") and today by classical liberals.
  • Classical liberals are also ftne egotistical (atomistic) liberals where modern liberals embrace a more developmental or collecitivswt view of liberalism.
  • Idea of the "enabling state" -- more modern liberal, inspirign the first moves towards the welfare state under Liberlas 1906-11 and the Beveridge Report. A statre which, in effect, helps people to help themselves. Classical liberlas have criticised this with Cobden implorign the poor to look not towards the law for help but towards "their own efforts and self-reliance". William Sumner fmaously argued that "the drunk in the gutter is ejust where he ought to be.".


  • Traditionalist conservatism bases itself primarily upon the thought of Burke and is concerned with thre maintainance of social hierarchy, but with a sense of noblesse oblige or obligations of the privileged towards those born below them. It also focuses on the maintannance of traditional morality as tested by time. These kinds of conservatives normally in fact see themselves as "nait-idoelogical" rather than as having an ideology givne that they wish to conserve what has endured through time rather than change society in a radical direction.
  • "One-national conservatism" arose around Disraeli's time and his concern in his normal "Sybil" for the possibility of "tow nations" being formed of the rich and the poor. DIsraeli as PM and other thinkers argued for paternalistic policies focused on solving the problems of the poor as this would, according ot this line of thinking, defeat the power of socialism.
  • The "new right" is divided into neoliberals and neoconservatives, These share a belief in the "rolling back of the state" economicalyl and the abolition of welfare and other state programmes, which only seek to prevent propsertiy by encouraging a lack of work ethic. (Rand…


No comments have yet been made