Political Parties OCR AS Government and Politics

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  • Created by: EJ19
  • Created on: 28-10-14 22:52

POLITICAL PARTIES

DEFINITION:

·         They have to represent the entire country

·         They have to set out the policies in a manifesto

·         They have many policies unlike Pressure Groups

·         They must have a leader unlike Pressure Groups

·         They should aim to be a part of the government

·         People can join to have a say in the manifesto

·         They should encourage people to vote

·         They should be held accountable by elections, judiciary and arrest

·         If they are not in power, they oppose/shadow

 FUNCTIONS:

- Representation = must represent everyone, even the opposition e.g. Dominic Grieve has to represent all people of Beaconsfield, even those that didn’t vote for him

- Policy formulation = each party has a manifesto they formulate e.g. for the 2010 elections each party created a manifesto of their policies

- Recruitment of leaders = each party elects a leader to represent them e.g. in 2010 Ed Miliband was elected leader of the Labour party over David Miliband

- Participation of electorate = gives a chance for people to join a party and move up the ranks – can be involved in different levels e.g. at festivals political parties have stands to encourage young people to join

- Organisation of Government = if they win an election they supply the Prime Minister and ministers for various state departments e.g. in 2010 David Cameron formed a coalition with Nick Clegg

PARTY SYSTEMS:

- One Party System – only one party you can vote for. Advantages: things get done quickly, encourage peace, and long term planning. Disadvantages: no real electoral choice, no change, dictatorship, only war overturns it e.g. North Korea, Syria (war)

- Dominant Party System – only one party that has a chance of being elected. Advantages: stability of one party system but no dictatorship e.g. 1979-1990 Margaret Thatcher could plan. Change is less violent e.g. Margaret Thatcher voted out after poll tax. Disadvantages: still less electoral choice e.g. 56.1% didn’t vote for Margaret Thatcher in 1979. Rigged elections e.g. 28th November 2011 Congo elections

- Two Party System – two parties with a realistic chance of being elected. Advantages: more choice e.g. UK could be seen 2 party system. Your vote counts, stops extremism e.g. Conservative and Labour are both very central. Disadvantages: Not enough choice e.g. in UK tactical voting still exists. Gravitating towards centre = same manifesto e.g. Conservative and Labour in 2010 becoming more central – similar policies

- Multi Party System – more than 2 parties with a realistic chance of winning. Advantages: more choice and no drifting to the centre e.g. Green Party etc. Disadvantages: more coalitions e.g. 2010 General Election. More extremists e.g. UKIP won 919,540 seats

 The UK is TWO PARTY because only Conservative and Labour have a realistic chance of forming a government as both won…

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