Plant Cells B2

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  • Created by: Rachel
  • Created on: 11-04-11 14:09

Plant Cells

Plant cells are similar to animal cells in that they too have:

  • Cell membrane - holds the cell together and controls what is let into and out of the cell
  • Cytoplasm - gel-like substance  containing enzymes that control chemical reactions
  • Nucleus - contains genetic material that controls the activities of specific cells
  • Mitochondria - Where most of the reactions for respiration take place. respiration releases energy needed for cells to work
  • Ribosomes - where proteins are made

However, plant cells also have:

  • Rigid cell wall - made of cellulose, supports and strengthens a plant cell
  • Permanent Vacuole - contains a weak solution of sugar and salts called cell sap
  • Chloroplasts - Where photosynthesis occurs. they contain a green substance called chlorophyll

both cells have a membrane on the outside, and cytoplasm and a nucleus inside. In the plant only are the cell wall, vacuole, and chloroplast.  (

Key Words

enzymes - Biological Catalysts. A catalyst is a substance which increases the speed of a reaction, without being changed or used up in the reaction. Enzymes are all proteins. The chains of amino acids that make up proteins are folded into unique shapes which enzymes need to do their jobs. They work by splitting substances into smaller parts.

Genetic Material - The genetic material of a cell is the information or code that determines the structure and function of a cell. All cells begin capable of variation, and some may become specialist cells.

Respiration - Respiration is the process of releasing energy from the breakdown of glucose, which happens in every cell. Respiration involves many reactions catalysed by enzymes.

Energy - The energy released by respiration is used in plants to build sugars, nitrates and other nutrients into amino acids, which are then built up into proteins. This process builds larger molecules from smaller ones.

 Proteins - Chains of amino acids.

Cellulose - Cellulose is the substance that makes up a plant's cell wall. It gives the cell strength and support and helps to keep the cell's structure. Cellulose is usually


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