Physics - Stable earth

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Earthquakes produce shock waves that cause damage. There are two types of seismic wave, P-waves and S-waves. Seismometers can detect these waves and provide evidence of the Earth’s structure.

The ozone layer reduces the amount of ultraviolet light from the Sun that reaches the Earth’s surface. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation can lead to sunburn and skin cancer, but sunscreens can reduce this damage. P-waves - they are longitudinal, fast and can pass through solids and liquids S-waves - they are transverse, slow, and can pass through solids

Ultraviolet radiation is found naturally in sunlight. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation can cause our skin to tan. It can also cause:

  • sunburn
  • skin cancer
  • eye cataracts
  • premature ageing of the skin.

Sunscreens can reduce the damage caused by ultraviolet radiation. They contain chemicals that absorb a lot of the radiation and prevent it from reaching our skin. They may also contain chemicals that reflect


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