The law of physics describing the process of electromagnetic induction is known as Faraday's law of induction and the most widespread version of this law states that the induced electromotive force in any closed circuit is equal to the rate of change of the magnetic flux enclosed by the circuit.[13][14] Or mathematically,

\mathcal{E} = -{{d\Phi_\mathrm{B}} \over dt} \ ,

where \mathcal{E} is…


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