Clinical characteristics :)
For a phobic disorder to be classed clinically as a phobic disorder the individual who's suffering from it has to meet certain characteristics!
- The phobic stimulis must cause a out of proportion fear
- There should be immediate anxiety in response to the stimulus
- There should be a realisation that the phobia is irrational
- The reaction given should be out of control
- The phobia must get in the way of day to day life
- There should also be some physiological responses;
- Anticipatory fear
- Poor concentration
- Dry mouth
- A need to pee or poop
- Breathing problems
- Muscle tension
- Red in the face (social phobics particularly)
3 Types of Phobias!
- Anxious when faced with particular stimulus
- Can be natural/environmental type, animal type, situational type or medical type
- Anxiety kicks in when in social situations where the individual has to "perform an action" infront of people
- Might be things like getting on a bus, presentations in college or ordering food etc
- Anxious when anywhere that can't be left easily
- Causes extreme anxiety and panic attacks!
- Individual seeks a "safe place"
- Can lead to public avoidance :(
Issues for classification :(
- Fear is completely normal response to certain things
- Often phobic disorders can link with other conditions like depression, so which one is the primary problem?!
- DSM IV and the ICD 10 define phobic disorders very differently, boo!
- Cultural differences!
- Being diagnosed means that there is a "label" left behind on the individual and they might have to disclose information at certain times even when they don't want to (for example if they're applying for a job they'd have to tell the employer but this might lead to a judgement being formed by the employer...)
- Classification overlooks individual differences! More focused on just classifying people rather than looking at them as individuals
- Reliability with classification, 1 psychologist might say 1 thing, another might say another, who's right?
Biological explanations of Phobic Disorders!
Most evidence for genetic's playing a part in phobic disorders comes from twin studies, surely if 1 twin has it the other one should as well yes? Evidence also…