• DSM-5 categories of phobia:
  • All phobias are characterised by excessive fear and anxiety, triggered by an object, place of situation. The following are recognised categories of phobia and related anxiety disorder:
  • Specific phobia: phobia of an object, or a situation. 
  • Social anxiety - phobia of a social situation
  • Agoraphobia - phobia of being outside or in a public space. 
  • Behavioural characteristics of phobias:
  • Panic - they may panic in response to the presence of the phobic stimulus. Panic could be defined by crying, screaming, or running away. Children may react by freexing or clinging. 
  • Avoidance - they make a lot of effort to avoid coming into contact with the phobic stimulus. 
  • Endurance - The alternative to avoidance. A sufferer reamains in the presence


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