'An irrational fear of an object or situation'
- Panic - Crying, screaming, fleeing etc when in the presence of phobic stimulus.
- Avoidance - Going to a lot of effort to avoid phobic stimulus.
- Endurance - Remaining in the presence of phobic stimulus but experiencing high levels of anxiety.
- Anxiety - High arousal state when phobic stimulus is encountered.
- Unreasonable response - Responses in relation to phobic stimulus may be wildly dispoportionate or unreasonable.
- Selective attention - Keeping attention on phobic stimulus to be ready to react.
- Irrational beliefs - Beliefs in relation to the phobic stimulus.
- Cognitive distortions - Perceptions of the phobic stimulus may be distorted.
Explaining phobias:The behavioural approach
Acquisition by classical conditioning
Two stimuli are repeatedly paired together and eventually the neutral stimulus (Phobia) produces a conditioned response.
Maintenance by operant conditioning