Personal rule - English Civil War

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-1533 Henry VIII made himself head the church rather than the pope creating the Church of England.

-Protestant and consolidated in Elizabeth I's reign (1558-1603)

-Key features were controlled by the king/queen; a bible was always available in church along with an English Prayer book. But divided;


-Liked ceremony and tradition, accepted older 'Catholic' church structure and liturgy.

-Believed the church should be run by Bishops.

-Keep decoration and retain clerical vestments (clothes) priests had always worn.

Believed they were reforming but not destroying the old Catholic Church


-Churches should be stripped of all decoration and images.

-Priests in black and white

-Abolition of episcopacy (govt. of the church by bishops)

-Appointment of pastors by the congregation

-Replacement of alters with simple communion tables.

More radical; believed the pope was Satan and the anti-christ so wanted no Catholic origins on show

Charles approach

-He identified with the more conservative (more popular) wing of the English church.

-Elevation of William Laud to the bishopric of London 1628 and Archbishop of Canterbury 1633 showed this.

-He and other Arminian’s found favour under Charles and provoked opposition from puritans.

-Puritans were angered by influence of Catholics at Court.

-Charles approach to this lack of compliance was to see it as a useful source of income rather than irradiate it (BAD idea).

Reforms of Archbishop Laud

Lauds ideas

-Denied puritan doctrine of predestination; man in his own actions could not shape his afterlife as God had already decided.

-Stressed importance of ceremony and ritual 'beauty of holiness'

-Order, deference and hierarchy in Church.

-Bishops were instituted by God's law.

-Clergy should stress power of the king and obedience owed to him.

-Wished with Charles to oppose order and uniformity in religion.

-Moderate towards Rome; believed Rome was in error but not as seriously as puritans.

-Hoped for reconciliation between the Churches of England and Rome, to put an end to wars of religion. This would allow authorities to destroy puritans.

-Believed the Church of England needed to be re-endowed, since the reformation the church had been plundered.

Church land had fallen into lay hands and patronage of church livings; tithes (taxes to the local priest) and advowsons (right to nominate someone to a church living) were in the hands of laymen, many puritan.

-1633 Laud destroyed the Feoffees for impropriations for puritan sympathies.

-Local clergy were becoming poor ad profession was not attracting the best men. Encouraged the continuations of corruptions.

-He wished to restore the quality of the clergy and the fabric of churches as due to underfunding many had decayed,

-1631 Laud and Charles raised money to repair fabric of St. Paul's.

Lauds actions

-Encouraged altars to be moved from the body of the Church, to the back and railed in.

-Encouraged the return of images, candles, gold and silver ornaments and bowing at the name of Jesus.

-Encouraged other bishops to carry out visitations of their churches and check upon puritan meetings.

Laud had his own three-year


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