Peace Treaties 1919-23 (Treaty of Versailles)

Treaty of Versailles

  • 32 nations attended the conference, however no defeated countries were invited.
  • USA, France, Britain, Italy and Japan dominated the conference

Motives and Aims of the Big Three

-French=George Clemenceau

  • Punish Germany so harshly that it is crippled
  • Germany to be split into small states
  • Reclaim territory which Germany had taken
  • Germany to pay money and supplies to help rebuild France

-USA=Woodrow Wilson

  • Germany to be lightly punished
  • Strengthen democracy in the defeated countries
  • International disarmament
  • Countries of Eastern Europe to be self-determined

-Britain=David Lloyd-George

  • Germany to be justly punished but not too harshly
  • Germany to lose its navy and colonies
  • For Germany and Britain to start as trading partners
  • Disarmament of Germany
  • Fulfil the British publics want for vengeance

Reasons for Aims


  • Wanted revenge against Germany for the massive damage it suffered to its land-industry and people
  • Two-thirds of the men who served in the French army had been killed or injured, therefore to many French people Germany looked powerful and threatening.


  • He thought that if Germany was treated harshly, someday it would recover and want revenge.
  • In strengthening democracy he believed the people would stop their leaders causing another war.
  • The LofN would ensure peace.
  • He was an idealist and he saw the treaty as an opportunity to enact upon his idealism.


  • If Germany was treated too harshly he believed another war would ensue.
  • He thought that the German navy and colonies posed a threat to the British Empire.
  • If they began trading it would increase jobs for the British.
  • He also wanted to revive Europe's economy.
  • British public pressuring him into punishing Germany

Aims Achieved?


  • Satisfied = War Guilt Clause, the disarmament clause and getting back Alsace-Lorraine
  • Not-satisfied = Thought that Germany wasn't punished harshly enough and that it still posed a threat to France
  • -Overall = not-satisfied


  • Satisfied = Was allowed self-determination in Eastern Europe
  • -Not-satisfied = Germany no allowed to join the LoN, treaty was too harsh on Germany, didn't get most


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