PE - 1.2.5 - A healthy, active lifestyle and your skeletal system

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The function of the Skeleton: Joints and Movement

Movement:

  • where bones meet they form joints
  • which act as levers
  • help to generate speed, force and power
  • tendons - bone to muscle, enables variety of movement

Support:

  • skeleton supports the body while sitting/standing/lying down
  • bones and skeleton give the body shape
  • act as framework and affecting body size
  • bones affect body composition

Protection:

  • bones protect vital organs from damage whilst doing sport
  • cranium - protects brain
  • ribcage and sternum - heart and lungs
  • vertebrae - spinal cord

Joints and movement:

  • a joint is a place where two or more bones meet
  • smooth movement - cartilage at ends of bones
  • act as a cushion to stop friction
  • joint surrounded by capsule - produces synovial fluid to lubricate joint
  • joints allow flexion, extension, adduction, abduction and rotation

Hinge joints:

  • elbow joint - allows arm to flex and extend
  • biceps and triceps work as an antagonistic pair to produce movement
  • knee joint - knee can flex/extend
  • movement caused by quadriceps and hamstrings

Ball and socket joints:

  • shoulder and hip joints
  • bones covered in cartilage
  • held together by ligaments
  • shoulder capable of flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, rotation

Shoulder joint movement:

  • Flexion - decrease angle at a joint - swinging arms back to prepare for dive
  • extension - increase angle at a joint - trowing arms formard as swimmer dives
  • rotation - movement around a joint - bowling in cricket

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