World War One, 1914 - November, 1918.
Paris Peace Conference:
- Took place in the palace of Versailles, in a room called the Hall of Mirrors.
- Lasted 12 months.
- 32 nations were meant to be represented, but no one from the defeated countries was invited.
- Five TREATIES were drawn up, main one being Treaty of Versialles, which dealt with Germany - the main threat - run by the "BIG THREE" US, Britain and France, who were supported by many diplomats and expert advisers, although they ignored their advice.
- US - President Woodrow Wilson - an idealist and realist. Wanted to avoid future wars, world peace, worldwide disarmament, democracy and League of Nations to be set up. Believed Germany should be treated harshly, but not to the extent they would seek revenge.
- Britain - Priminister David Lloyd George - a realist, experienced, wanted to start trading with Germany again. Mainly wanted to decrease size of their navy. Believed they should be treated harshly, as thats what the people wanted, but agreed to a 'justly' punishment.
- France - Priminister George Clemenceau - a tough politician, 'the tiger', he believes that Germany destroyed France through previous attacks (twice invaded by Germany, they claimed Alsace-Lorraine), and wanted to punish them harshly in order to 'cripple' them. He seeked revenge, and through revenge security.
- The "Big Three" did not get on well at the start, main tension between Wilson and Clemenceau. Wilson was ill during parts of the conference. All knew they wanted to punish Germany, also wanted peace instead of war, LON to be set up, global disarmament (Mainly Wilson).
- Other Treaties were: how i remember = BATH - NGST.
Bulgaria: Treaty of Neuilly, November 27th 1919 - lost land to Greece, Romania, Yuhoslavia. Lost access to meditarranean sea. Armed forces reduced to 20,000. Reparations were 100 million pounds.
Austria: Treaty of St. Germain, September 10th 1919 - seperated from Hungary, no longer a leading power, lost Galiciato to Poland/land to Italy. Army reduced to 30,00 soldiers, later suffered economic problems.
Turkey: Treaty of Sevres, August 10th 1920 -unsuccessful treaty, last ot be arranged, lost Smyrna to Greece/Syria to the Frenches control. Lost control of the straits running into black sea. No military restrictions, no reparations. Turkish nationalists, led by Mustafa Kemal challenged the terms when they grove the Greeks out of Smyrna. This resulted by the Treaty being eventually replaced by Treaty of Lausanne, July 1923, which returned Smyrna to Turkey.
Hungary: Treaty of Trianon, June 4th 1920 - lost territory to Romania, 3 million Bulgarians ended up in foreign countries, too poor to pay. Communisum emerged in 1919, but was overthrown and replaced by a military dictatorship. Hungarians hated the treaty as it left 3 million Hungarians under foreign rule
- THE ACTUAL CONFERENCE -
- The Big Three met up in Paris in January 1919. Many felt Germany was solely responsible and should be severly punished.
- ALSO: Germany had treated Russia ruthlessly…