Paper 2 Topic 2 Sport phychology

  • Created by: Finpoppy1
  • Created on: 04-09-21 17:21

Classification of skills

Many different skills are used to take part in sport. You need to know the calssification of a skill so that you can create an appropriate practice to improve it. Most skills are measured on a continuum, which is a scale between two extremes. Continua means more than one continuum.

One example of a skills continuum is between open and closed skills.

Open skills are thoses that are affected by the surrounding enviroment. Open skills need to be constantly adapted by the performer to meet changing situations. Conditions are unstable and unlikely to be the same twice.

Examples: passing in hockey, dribbling in football, hitting a cricket ball in a match.

Closed skills are those that are not affected by the surrounding enviroment. They do not need to be adapted because the conditions surrounding the performer are stable.

Example: a penalty kick in football, a gymnastics vault, a tennis serve.

Closed skills have a set pattern and can be pre - planned.

Another example of a skills continuum is between basic (simple) and complex skills.

Basic (simple) skills

These skills require little thought, information or decision making. Examples: running, cycling, swimming or chest pass.

Complex skills

These skills are difficult, require thought and concentration, require a lot of information to be processed and require a lot of decision making. Example: rock climbing, trying to dribble past defenders of passing the baton in a relay race.

A final example of a skills contimuum is between low organisation and high organistation skills.

Low organisation skills are easy to do and have clear separate phases ( making them easy to break down and practice). Examples: a tennis serve or the triple jump.

High organistation skills are harder to do and have phases that are not clearly broken down without affecting the skill (making them harder to practice). Examples :tumbling in gymnastics or a golf swing.

Massed and distributed practice

Practice is needed to get better at a skill but it is important that the right practice structure is chosen so that it is effective.

Massed practise

This is when there are little or no breaks in a session. The skill is repeated over and over again.

Benifits - the correct movement pattern is grooved (you get the feel of the skill)

Disadvantage - it can get boring and tiring

Massed practice is used:

- When the performer is experienced, older, motavated or fit

- When the skill is simple, closed or low organisation.

Distributed practice

This is when there are breaks in the session providing rest periods or changes of activity. There are fewer repetitions and several skills can be practised rather than just one.

Benifits - prevents boredom and boosts motivation

Disadvntage - can take longer to learn a skill.

Distribute practice is used:

- When a performer is a beginner, young or not very fit

- When the skill is complex, high organistation.

Sporting examples

Massed practice - a squash player continuosly hitting forehand drives until…


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