P4 Key Terms

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P4 Key Terms

Pink- Higher and Foundation Tier

Blue- Foundation Tier

Activity- Number of radioactive decays per second

Alpha particle- Very ionising, but not very penetrating form of ionising radiation. Made up of 2 neutrons (a helium nucleus)

Attract- Pull towards

Background radiation- Radiation around us all of the time from a variety of natural and man-made sources

Beta particle- Ionising form of radiation. It is a fast electron from the nucleus

Chain reaction- One reaction going on to create another, which creates another, and so on, such as a nuclear fission chain reaction inside a nuclear reactor

Charge- Property of some objects (like electrons and protons). There are two types of charge, negative and positive

Circuit breaker- Device that detects an electrical fault and breaks the circuit

Cold fusion- Attempt to fuse hydrogen nuclei together at room temperature

Compression- Pushing together of particles caused by the passing of a sound wave

Control rods- Metal rods lowered into nuclear reactors to absorb neutrons and so control the reaction

Current- Movement of charged particles (usually electrons) through a material

Defibrillator- Device for providing a short flow of charge through the heart of a patient to set it beating again

Double-insulated- Describes an appliance in which all the live components are sealed away from the case, so the case cannot become live

Earth- Pin/wire that carries energy safely away from an appliance if there is a fault

Electromagnetic wave- Wave that has oscillating electric and magnetic fields at right angles to its direction of motion

Electrostatic charge- Charge from electrons that have been moved to or from an insulator

Electrostatic dust precipitator- Apparatus for removing smoke from flue gases by means of electricity

Electrostatic shock- Effect on a person who rapidly conducts charge from a charged object


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