Optical fibres can carry data over long distances as pulses of light or infared radiation.
They work by bouncing waves off the sides of a very narrow core which is protected by outer layers.
The light eneters one end of the fibre and is reflected again and again until it emerges at the other end.
It's a very quick way to communicate. In a vacuum, light travels at 300,000,000 m/s. Light can't travel that fast through optical fibres - it's slowed down by about 30%, but is still pretty quick.
Total Internal Reflection:
Optical fibres only work because of total internal reflection - all the lgiht is reflected when the light ray hits the other side of the inner core. If light escaped at each bounce, the signal would weaken very quickly.
- Total Internal Reflection can only happen when the light ray…