Aquinas; First Way
- Developed from Aristotle "everything that is in motion has been moved by something else"
- You can't infinitly regress, so there must be a FIRST MOVER or PRIME MOVER
- "UNMOVED MOVER"
- Everything we see is in a state of motion or change, but can't get there by itself, it needs something else to move/change it.
- Moving from a state of potentiallity to a state of actuallity by something already in a state of actuallity, called the efficient cause.
- Block of marble + sculptor = statue
Aquinas; Second Way
- Concept of cause and effect
- Everything has an efficient cause, intermediet cause and ultimate cause
- You can't infititely regress and so there must be a FIRST CAUSE
Aquinas; Third Way
- Concept of contingency
- Everything we see has the possibility of not existing, and need something else to bring them into existance. They are CONTINGENT BEINGS
- The universe would need a being that is uncaused and ultimate to bring it into existance, IE a NECESSARY BEING
- This necessary being is God, he cannot not exist
Leibniz; Principle of Sufficent Reason
- Took the phrase; "Ex nihilo, nihilo fit" // "Out of nothing, nothing comes"
- As there is something rather than nothing, there must be a reason for existance.
- There have been PARTIAL REASONS but God is the only SUFFICIENT REASON
- Previous editions of books are partial reasons for its existance, only the author is a sufficient reason
Kalam Arguments; William Lane Craig
- Four basic points
- 1) Everything that began to exist, has a cause of existance
- 2) the universe began to exist
- 3) Therefore, the universe has a cause of existance
- 4) And…