Outline and evaluate one or more explanations of attachment. (12 marks)

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Outline and evaluate one or more explanations of attachment. (12 marks)

An attachment is a bond between two people especially mother and infant. It keeps a physical closeness between the mother and her child and also promotes a healthy environment. 

Freud said we attach to the person that feeds us. This is called the Cupboard Love Theory. Children go through psychosexual stages of development. The first stage is called the oral stage and lasts until two years after birth. Babies are satisfied by any stimulation to do with the mouth e.g. sucking and especially feeding. This stage is important in the development of attachments. The mother usually provides the satisfaction by breast feeding in the oral stage so the mother becomes the primary love object and the attachment figure. Freud believes that the mother is unique because she is the first and strongest love object. Her relationship with the child is the prototype for all later love relationships. If babies are deprived of their needs in the oral stage they never feel secure and happy in future relationships.

Bowlby's Evolutionary Theory of attachments is that the infant bonds with one special attachment figure who is usually the mother because she is special and unique in attachment. The bond with the mother is special because it is different from all other bonds the child makes. Bowlby believed that attachment behaviour was innate and had been passed down through evolution for the survival of the infant. They are born programmed to become attached and that adults are also programmed to attach to their infants. Certain behaviours called social releases encourage the bond. Social releases include smiling, crying, cooing, looking cute etc. they all make adults respond and bond with them. Bowlby also believed that there is a critical period between 7months and 2-3 years for attachment to occur. He said if attachment doesn't occur during this age it is impossible for it to occur after. Bowlby said that the first attachment to the mother was very important because it gave the infant a blueprint on how future relationships should be. The child is given information about themselves


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