States that some hotspots do not always form from a deep mantle plume but have instead formed as a shallow hotspot.
- Thermal topography shows that the mantle plumes do not come from the lower mantle.
- Siesmology doesnt show significant evidence that the deep mantle plume exists.
She also says that the theory is flawed as some islands do not progress in age order.
However wilsons theory says that the reason for this is because where the plates are being stretched into subduction zones at either end, weaknesses arise in the centre of the crust.
The subducted material creates magma which then rises through the weaknesses…