Organic - Chemistry

  • Created by: th13114
  • Created on: 21-11-18 23:25


- Alkanes are a family of hydrocarbons in which all the atoms are linked by single covalent bonds. We therefore say alkanes are saturated. All other C atoms are branches attached to the parent chain and are named according to the number of C atoms in the attached group.


Alkanes with molecules with up to four carbon atoms are gases. Alkanes with molecules with between 5-15 carbons are liquids. Alkanes with molecules with more than 15 carbons are soft wxy solids. In alkanes when oxygen is plentiful, complete combustion occurs. Complete combustion gives a flame that is blue. With limited oxygen there is incomplete combustion and carbon monoxide or sot is formed.

Alkanes will undergo substitution with members of teh halogen family (bromine, chlorine, iodine), but this reaction only occurs in the presense of sunlight.


When halogen atoms are subsitiued into alkanes they form haloalkanes. The position of the parent chain with the names in alphabetical order are used if there is more than one type of halogen.


Haloalkanes can undergo substitution reactions with KOH to form alcohols and with concentrated ammonia to form amines. Substitution occurs when an atom or a group of atoms in an organic molecule is replaced by another atom. Haloalkanes can also undergo elimination reaction which involve the removal of the halogen atom and a hydrogen atom from an adjacent carbon atom. The result of this reacton is an alkene. The poor get poorer rule is used here.


Alkenes are hydrocarbons which contain a carbon double bond. Alkenes have non polar molecules and hence are insoluble in water and other polar solvents. They also show n increase in melting…




This resource is not for IGCSE Chemistry. More like AS and A Level Chemistry.