Option D Study Guide

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study guide for option d


Therapeutic window= LD50/ED50 ·         LD50= lethal dose (50%) = kill half of the population ·         ED50=effective does (50%)=minimum does that has desired effect on half the population ·         High therapeutic window = hard to overdose (LD >ED) ·         Low therapeutic window= easy to overdose (LD is lose to ED) ·         Tolerance: increased dose required to achieve the same initial effect  (ex:heroin) ·         An increase in tolerance can lead to a possibility of reaching the LD ·         Side effects: unwanted physiological effects of a drug/medicine ·         Morphine: strong pain killer, but has a side effect of constipation ·         Aspirin: mild anelisgic (for headaches), side effect = thinning of blood, bleeding of stomach   ·         Anti-foaming agent (dimethicone) will collect “bubbles” together to produce one big bubble which will go out anus or out of mouth (farts or burps) ·         Alginate makes protective layer ·         NaHCO3, Mg(OH)2, Al(OH)3 : o   NaHCO3 + HCl à H2O + CO2 + NaCl o   Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl à MgCl2 + 2H2O (no gas = no anti-foaming agents) o   Al(OH)3 +3 HCl à AlCl3 + 3H2O o   NaOH = great neutralizer, but it is a strong base which will case burning in esophagus that will suffocate you.


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