Optimal Distributions

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Group living

  • When will individuals form groups?

Resource Exploitation

  • What happens when many individuals exploit the same limited resources?
    • Competition
  • The decisions made by one competitor may influence what others are doing
  • In some cases this can lead to defence of resources

Dung flies

  • Females come to dung to lay their eggs.
  • Males wait on the dung for females, copulate with them, then guard them.
  • Females need fresh dung as old dung gets a crust on top.
  • How long should males wait for females?
  • Competition - if other males stay for a short time it pays to stay longer (no competition) but if other males stay for a long time it pays to move to new dung.

How long to stay?

Resource Exploitation

  • 2 habitats:
    • Rich habitat
    • Poor habitat
  • Each individual exploits the habitat that gives it the most rewards
  • Imagine no resource defence
  • What will the first arrivals do?
  • What will the last arrivals do?
  • A point will be reached where the nest arrivals will do better to occupy the poorer qwuality habitat.
    • Less resources
    • But, less competition
  • Eventually, the two habitats will be filled so the profitability is the same in each one.
  • Profitability is the same for all individuals

The Ideal-Free Distribution

  • As…

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