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  • Created on: 18-09-12 19:52

EDEXCEL GCSE Science BIOLOGY UNIT B2 The components of life

Topic 1 The building blocks of cells

  • 1.1 Be able to describe the function of the components of a bacterial cell including chromosomal DNA, plasmid DNA, flagella and cell wall
  • 1.2 Be able to describe the function of the components of a plant cell including chloroplast, large vacuole, cell wall, cell membrane, mitochondria, cytoplasm and nucleus.
  • 1.3 Be able to describe the function of the components of an animal cell including cell membrane, mitochondria, cytoplasm and nucleus
  • 1.4 Be able to describe how plant and animal cells can be studied in greater detail with a light microscope
  • 1.5 Be able to demonstrate an understanding of how changes in microscope technology have enabled us to see cells with more clarity and detail than in the past, including simple magnification calculations
  • 1.6 Know that a gene is a section of a molecule of DNA and that it codes for a specific protein
  • 1.7 Be able to describe a DNA molecule as
    • a) two strands coiled to form a double helix
    • b) strands linked by a series of complementary base pairs joined together by weak hydrogen bonds:
      • (i) adenine (A) with thymine (T)
      • (ii) cytosine (C) with guanine (G)
  • 1.8 Appreciate how to extract DNA from cells
  • 1.9 Be able to explain how the structure of DNA was discovered, including the roles of the scientists Watson, Crick, Franklin and Wilkins
  • 1.10 HT only: Be able to demonstrate an understanding of the implications of sequencing the human genome (Human Genome Project) and of the collaboration that took place within this project
  • 1.11 Be able to demonstrate an understanding of the process of genetic engineering, including the removal of a gene from the DNA of one organism and the insertion of that gene into the DNA of another organism
  • 1.12 Discuss an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering to produce GM organisms, including:
    • a) beta carotene in golden rice to reduce vitamin A deficiency in humans
    • b) the production of human insulin by genetically modified bacteria
    • c) the production of herbicide-resistant crop plants
  • 1.13 Be able to describe the division of a cell by mitosis as the production of two daughter cells, each with identical sets of chromosomes in the nucleus to the parent cell, and that this results in the formation of two genetically identical diploid body cells.
  • 1.14 Know that mitosis occurs during growth, repair and asexual reproduction
  • 1.15 Know that, at fertilisation, haploid gametes combine to form a diploid zygote
  • 1.16 Be able to describe the division of a cell by meiosis as the production of four daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes, and that this results in the formation of genetically different haploid gametes
  • 1.17 Know that cloning is an example of asexual reproduction that produces genetically identical copies
  • 1.18 HT only: Be able to demonstrate an understanding of the stages in the production of cloned mammals, including:
    • a) removal of diploid nucleus

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