In 1904, Nicholas lost a war with Japan, which undermined his authority. In 1905, a peaceful demonstration of workers led by a priest Father Gapon was attacked by the Cossacks, in a bid to assert the Tsar's authority. This led to strikes and riots.
Nicholas published the October Manifesto after surviving the attempted revolution. He promised to:
- Create a Duma (parliament). This caused many middle-class people, called Octoberists, to support him. The Duma were elected by the public which satisfied the Liberals. No laws could…