OCR ICT A2 Unit 1

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ICT Chapter 1 Notes

System Cycle

·         Problem definition stage- feasibility of the system is considered (feasibility stage), how the initial system can be improved, it is written by an analyst in none-technical language.

·         Investigation and analysis stage- using the feasibility report the nature of the problem is investigated, different methods such as observations, interviews are used when investigating the problem. A requirements list is created which is agreed by the client, these requirements are constantly referred to throughout the whole system cycle

·         Design– objectives in investigation and analysis stage are followed. The methods and formats of data capture, input, output, structure of data, processing and validation routines, queries and reports are all designed. The project plan is also developed.

·         Implementation-  this is taking the design and creating the system. A decision about software strategy, based on budget constraints set by client, is made. Coding, macros and queries are created with backup and data storage being considered.

·         Testing- tests the output from the implementation stage, two functions, check for any bugs or errors in the codes and check whether the system meets the needs of the user requirements list.

·         Installation stage- here are four types of strategies to choose from when installing a new system, parallel, pilot, direct and phased method. The training of the employees must be completed during this stage.

·         Documentation stage- test plans, data and logs, user manuals, version and security details and program specifications are created and passed to the user.

·         Evaluation and maintenance stage- if any requirements are not met on time then this is identified in the evaluation of the new system and rectified through maintenance which is a process that ensures the system continues to meet the needs of its user.


Advantages and disadvantages of different approaches:





Ø  Comparisons are easy to make because large numbers of people can be asked the same questions

Ø  Anonymity ensures people answer truthfully

Ø  Cheap method of collecting data compared to interviews

Ø  Questions must be unambiguous so should be designed very carefully

Ø  Can't guarantee 100% return



Ø  Can create a rapport with the people who will use the system

Ø  Follow up questions can be asked and the questions can be adjusted throughout the interview

Ø  Time consuming and costly

Ø  Hard to interview everyone from a large company

Ø  If the interviews poor then misleading information may be collected


Ø  Groups of people can attend a meeting

Ø  Discussions can take place whereby different views can be expressed

Ø  Can gather or give information

Ø  Body language can be seen

Ø  Discussions can lose focus, the question may not be answered properly

Ø  Staff may not attend as jobs and tasks may still need to be



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