Occupation Theorists

Holmes: 1992

Female doctors were interrupted more frequently than male doctors (by patients).

In businesses, men dominated conversations, not women.

Herbert & Straight: 1989

Compliments are usually from a person of higher authority to a person of lower authority.

Deflecting/negating a compliment shows/implies that the addressee is superior.

Male to male = 228 compliments.

Male to female = 258 compliments.

Female to female = 330 compliments.

Female to male = 246 compliments.

Different compliment responses include: appreciation/comment acceptance ("thanks"), praise upgrade/question ("really?"), return ("so do you"), scale down ("no I'm not!"), no acknowledgement/changing subject.

Tracy & Eisneburg: 1991

Role-play with university students, who had all been employed, of playing a person giving criticism.

Both men & women were more direct in superordinate roles than in subordinate roles (traditionally male feature).

Men in subordinate roles were more concerned about feelings.

Women in superordinate roles were more concerned with feelings & faces.

Men placed importance on goals.

Both genders used traditionally male features when in the superordinate position.

Both genders used traditionally female features

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