In nucleophilic substitution, an atom or group of atoms is replaced by a nucleophile (an electron pair donor).
During hydrolysis, the halogen atom is replaced by the hydroxide ion. The substitution takes place as follows:
The hydroxide ion, OH-, has a lone pair of electrons. These are attracted and donated to the electron-deficient carbon atom in the halogenoalkane. This is nucleophilic attack.
The donation of the electron pair leads to the formation of a new covalent…