Nucleophilic Substitution (Hydrolysis)

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In nucleophilic substitution, an atom or group of atoms is replaced by a nucleophile (an electron pair donor).

During hydrolysis, the halogen atom is replaced by the hydroxide ion. The substitution takes place as follows:

The hydroxide ion, OH-, has a lone pair of electrons. These are attracted and donated to the electron-deficient carbon atom in the halogenoalkane. This is nucleophilic attack.

The donation of the electron pair leads to the formation of a new covalent…


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