Non-specific responses to infection.

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Protruding from the outer surface of the cell surface memrane are many proteins, in particular glycoproteins, which are protein molecules with a carbohydrate component. Similar recognition sites may bind to one another, holding cells together. These glycoproteins also act as antigens which are recognised by white blood cells during the specific response to infection. An antigen is a substance that stimulates the production of an antibody when it gets into the body. Antigens can also e toxins produce by bacteria, or sometimes whole microorganisms. Once pathogens get inside the body, other responses rather than physical ones come into play. The non-specific repsonses simply recognise a difference between your own cells and foreign cells and act against the foreign cells.

Inflammation - a common, non-specific method and usually occurs when an infections is relatively localised, e.g. when you cut yourself. Special tissues called mast cells are found in the connective tissue below the skin and around blood cells. When this tissue is damaged, mast cells…

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