- 'most of a philosophers conscious thinking is secretly guided and channelled into particular tracks by his instincts'
- values are 'psychological demands for the preservation of a particular kind of life'
- 'all animals strive instinctively for an optimum combinaion of favourable conditions which allow them to expend all their energy and echieve their maximum feeling of power'
- different types of people are drawn to different types of life
- different values support different ways of life
- on basis of these interpretations of values people come to hold dif phil views
Philosophy and Values
- moral aims of a philosophy are the seed from which the whole theory grows
- philosophers seek resons to support their pre-existing commitment to 'a rarefied and abstract version of their hearts desire'
- 'How are synthetic a priori judgements possible?'
- Kant says such judgements are possible because we have a faculty that makes them possible - flawed theory
- should look at a persons values for an explanation of why they hold these beliefs
- Hume and Nietzsche both argue theres no rational explanation of many of our beliefs - try to find source of these beliefs outside/beyond reason
- Hume - imagination and principle of 'Custom'
- Nietzsche - motivation and the bewitchment of language
- philosophy isnt driven by a will to truth
- philosophy interprets the world in terms of the philosophers values
- stoics - we should live accoring to nature - they interpret nature by their own values
Philosophers' values: the 'ascetic ideal' and the 'will to truth'
- if philosophical beliefs rest on values - values are expresions of power - philosophica beliefs are an indirect expression of power
- philosophy requires lifestyle of contemplation and ascetism
- ascetism - self discipline and refusal to indulge bodily desires
- philosophers find it difficult if surrounded by culture of action and values that support these activites
- protect their lifestyle by arguing there are transcendent values of the mind that are greater than values of the body and world of action
- they max their feeling of power over themselves (ascetism) and others
- philosophy is wrong to think its an expression of will to truth as other values come into play
- discovery of truth at any cost involves a guiding value thats an expression of the ascetic ideal - elevates mind over body & expresses will to bear the cost of truth
- what is the value of truth? why do we prefer truth to untruth?
- we dont but we say we do - hold truth to be of value even if we dont always act according to that value
- paradox - nietzsche wants to know the truth about the will to truth
- will to truth originates in self-deception
- it presents itself as driven only by the value of truth but its part of a set of balues that seek to protect conditions in which certain types of people can live the kind of life that maxs their feeling of power
- new philosopher will be the creators of values
- unlike the values of the past which have…