Nicholas II and the 4 Dumas


Before 1905, political parties were illegal in Russia.  After 1905, many different parties formed.  The 2 middle ground political parties were the Constitutional democrats (Kadets- more liberal) and the Octobrists - more conservative.  

The Duma was created but power very limited - Tsar had ultimate power (Article 87)

  • 1st Duma (468 seats. Kadets have 185 & Trudoviks have 94.  SDs and SRs boycott it.)
    • The Duma was strongly anti-government as dominated by Kadets and Trudoviks (split of SR).
    • Main demand: land reform - taking more from landlords.  Kadets supported that but also wanted State Council to be abolished and for the government to answer directly to Duma
    • After 10 weeks, Duma was shut down leading to more liberal opposition


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