Nazi Germany- everything for Edexcel course, 1918-45

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Nazi Germany

Why Was Germany such an Important Country By 1918?

·         Fertile land and rich natural resources

·         Since 1871 Germany became extremely powerful and this power increased

·         In the years before WW1 German Industry quickly developed to produce lots of Iron and Steel and as much coal as Britain.

·         German countries dominated the EU market for electrical goods

·         Germany increased over sea exports by 400%

·         Military potential- Lots of men and growing metal industry

·         Kaiser’s personality- obsessed with military strength and the British Navy, he wanted to make all the decisions but lacked concentration for the details he should have based decisions on

·         Kaiser’s ambitions- wanted to improve Navy and make Germany a World Power

What effect did WW1 have on Germany?

·         Farming disrupted as farmers went to war- by 1918 Germany produced only 50% of the milk and 60% of the butter and meat that it had

·         It could not make up for this shortage by importing food because a British blockade had prevented this for the last 2 years

·         In the winter of 1916-17 potatoes ran out leaving only Parsnips

·         Civilians became weak and vulnerable to disease

·         ¾ million Germans died of sickness and starvation

·         The Reichstag had always been weak and verging on dictatorship.

·         During the war the Kaiser seized full control, opposition leaders were imprisoned and the country was run as a military dictatorship with him and his two army leaders Ludendorff and Hindenburg

·         The treaty of Versailles caused Germans to lose 10% of their industry and 13% of their land including the Rhineland

·         Reparations of $6,600 million lead to hyper inflation

·         War guilt

Why was the Weimar Republic so unpopular 1919-23?

·         People were bitter that the war had ended, they felt they could have won


·         June 1919 the signing of the Treaty of Versailles and the stab in the back theory

·         The Weimar Republic and the people believed that the treaty would be lenient because the Kaiser had been overthrown and a new Government created. They believed it was a war of self defence. They had to sign because of the blockade

·         This was not the case. Germany was force to accept war guilt (231)


·         The Weimar Republic was considered weak because the country was used to a dictatorship. The 5 party coalition was often ineffectual

·         Germany was forced to pay £6,600 in reparations. As the treaty also took away 10% of Germany’s industry and 13% land, and Germany had its own damages to pay for, tax went up massively and Germany entered a recession. Lack of money, disruption of farming and the military blockade led to starvation which the Government was expected to fix but could not                                                                                                                                                              

·         Germany could not keep…


Kishan Pandya

thanks (:

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