Aristotle (384 - 322BC)
- Theory of Causes - essence (intrinsic nature which determines character) of something.
- Efficient Cause - how something happens, what brings something about e.g. to make a book you need paper; paper is the Efficient Cause in this case.
- Final Cause - the ultimate purpose of something; the purpose of a book is to be read. It gives an explanation of an object.
- The Efficient Cause can be applied to humans because we know we are a result of our parents.
- Aristotle also asked about the purpose of human life; the Final Cause.
- Eudaimonia - the purpose of all human life is all-round well-being which leads to happiness. Our main aim in life is to be happy.
- The idea of morality…