NAACP victories / Federal legislation during the Civil Rights Movement

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  • 13th Amendment - freedom from slavery
  • 14th Amendment - every man is equal
  • 1866 Civil Rights Act
  • 1867 Military Reconstruction Act - imposed Martial Law to uphold the 13th and 14th Amendments
  • 15th Amendment - every man has voting rights - prompted an increase in Black civic societies and political organisations in the south

Important event (IE): 1865 Election - 100,000 more blacks voted than whites did (leading to more thorough enforcement of Black Codes)

  • 1871 KKK Act
  • 1873 Slaughterhouse Case

IE: 1873 ECONOMIC DEPRESSION = 1. Waning interest in reconstruction, as Northerners care more about own hardship 2. Congress becomes tired of having to enforce Civil Rights
IE: 1874 Democrats become majority in congress over Radical Republicans (i.e. less sympathy for Civil Rights)

  • 1875 Civil Rights Act
  • 1876 United States v Cruikshank - The enforcement of the 14th A is only allowed at federal not state level (harder)
  • 1883 The 1875 CRA

IE: "The Disputed election" followed by "The Compromise of 1877" Whites in the North, frustrated with the amount of federal aid focused on the South, vote Republican leading to many disputed votes in some states. The Democrats concede the presidency to the Republicans in exchange for the complete withdrawal of troops from the South = END OF RECONSTRUCTION

Late 1800s 1877-1910

  • 1896 Plessy vs Ferguson Separate but Equal ruling = synonymous with Jim Crow laws


  • 1915 NAACP outlaws Grandfather Clause

IE: Reemergence of the KKK 1915


IE: 1925 establishment of the first black Union - The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters by A. Phillip Randolph

1930s Depression and the New Deal

IE: 50% of blacks nationally unemployed, 2/3 of sharecroppers make no profit = blacks experience disease and starvation

Lynchings increase during this period to a peak of 28 in 1933

  • 30% of Black families receive relief
  • 1 million worked on federal housing projects
  • Job creation schemes
  • Agricultural Adjustment Act = help black farmers buy their own land through compensation
  • FDR's black cabinet

However: many blacks encounter discrimination by the administrators of alphabet agencies

1939-1945 WW2

  • 1941 FDR issues an Executive Order desegregating defense industries, as a result of A. Phillip Randolph threatening to March on Washington
  • 1944 Smith vs Allwright outlawed all white Texas primaries - prompting increased voter registration

1946-1960 The Cold War and the beginning of the CRM

  • 1946 Morgan v Virginia - desegregated interstate transport- prompted CORE's "Ride of Reconciliation"
  • 1947 Truman issues an Executive Order…


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