Definition: Causing the death of a human being with malice aforethought
Actus Reus: Common element of homicide (death, R v Melcherek, Steel, human being AG Ref (No.3), Within 3 year- Law and reform acr 1996).
Causation: factual causation- but for test- R v White
Legal causation- Substantial and operative cause- significant and ongoing- R v Smith/ R v Cheshire
Interveneing act: Must be forseeable- R v Paggett
Thin Skull Test- take the victim as…