Multicultural societies

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Issues related to multicultural societies

Housing -

In the inital phases of immigration, multiple occupancy of rented accommodation in inner city areas (Terraced houses) was widespread. As migrants are often a source of cheap labour in low paid construction, transport or health service jobs ( in the UK in 2000, 27% of London Underground staff, 26%, of all workers in the health servicesn and 14% of all workers in the catering industry were foreign born), they have tended to concentratein areas of poorest housing in major cities. Such concentrations are then built on by later migrants who wish to live near family in an ethnic community.

Ethnic minorities have been less succesful in securing mortgage loans. This has forced them to use less conventional and more expensive forms of financing which limits what they are able to afford. This contributes to the low rate of owner occupancy among the ethnic minority population.

Ethnic minorities have also been  discriminated againist in acces to local authority housing and tend to be disproportinatley represented among council hosue tenants. This has lead to landlords for a certain ethnic group providing housing for only that ethnic group this process is known as the racialisation of resedential space

More recently owner occupancy has increased and some wealthy individuals have moved into surburban areas. In addition many memebers of the ethnic minorities run small business such as shops, and live in part of the same building. Despite this goegraphical segreagation is clear, as is inequality. On average asian households are the largest of all ethnic groups, contain most dependant children, are the most overcrowded and have the highest rate of unemployment.

Education -

Concentrations of minorities in inner-city areas have led to some schools being dominated  by one ethnic group, which has affected education requirements. For example, special English lessons may be needed for children and their parents ( mother in particular) and bilingual reading schemes may be introduced.Rare faith schools are being created.In communioties like Leicester and Bradford, where holiday patterns, school timetables and school timetables and school meals reflect the ethnic mix of the areas. This helps to enhance mutual understanding of culture, particularly among the young.

Healthcare -

In the past there has been a lack of resistance to childhood diseases aming the children of newly arrived immigrants, and fears about immunisation. Literature has been produced in ethnic minority languages to inform parents about the benefits of immunisation. However as literacy and education standards have improved, particularly among the secound and subsequent generation ethnic minorities, there have been fewer concerns.

Many ethnic minority groups continue to live in run-down inner-city areas and there remains a higher concentration of communicable and transmittable disease in such areas. However, this is more a reflection of the living standards in these areas than of the people who live in them.

Language -

New migrants can

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