Most common 10 mark questions plans

  • Created by: zbayouni
  • Created on: 12-05-16 11:04

10 mark questions plans 

Rocks and weathering 

Human activities on slopes: 

  • Mining/quarrying exposes rocks to weathering 

  • Surface can be affected by dumping waste e.g. Aberfan, Wales 1966. 

  • Lack of/planting vegetation, roots act as an anchor 

  • Construction of reservoirs can lead to slope failure e.g. Vajont Dam, Italy 1963 

  • Pollution can increase acid rain and hence increase processes such as carbonation 

  • Slopes can be undermined by roads 


Rock type/vegetation/climate affects weathering: 

  • Climate affects the type and rate of weathering and erosion 

  • Mechanical weathering is predominant in cold areas e.g. freeze thaw 

  • Chemical weathering is predominant in warm areas e.g. salt crystallisation 

  • Van’t Hoff’s law states that with every 10⁰C increase in temperature, there’s a two to three times increase in the rate of chemical weathering 

  • Vegetation stabilises slops through roots and interception of water 

  • Limestone is vulnerable to carbonation and it contains calcium carbonate 

  • Granite is prone to hydrolysis 

  • Sedimentary bedding planes found in sedimentary rock may slide along 

  • Water promotes slope failure 


River processes in relation to variations in river flow: 

  • Draw the Hjulstrom curve 

  • High velocities needed from erosion, however lower velocities are needed once the material has been eroded 

  • Laminar, helicoidal and turbulent flow if related to erosion 


Human activities leading to the prevention and amelioration of floods: 

  • River Ilston case study 

  • Modification of the river basin (deepening the channel, widening the channel) 

  • Characteristics to increase the velocity of water (straightening the river encourages laminar flow) 

  • Afforestation increases interception and therefore reduces surface run off 

  • Removed pillars underneath the bridges to prevent damming 

  • Washland (sacrificial land especially used for farming) 

  • Canalisation (concrete on the river bed to reduce turbulent and helicoidal flow) 

  • Gauge for flood prevention and warning 

To what extent can human activities bring about both flooding and low flow in a river basin? 

  • Human activities can create conditions influence flooding by creating conditions that increase overland flow, and could therefore bring about over-bankfull conditions (urbanisation and deforestation) 

  • Climate change can potentially lead to certain areas to experience more frequent and more intense storms that can lead




Hi are there more notes about slope processes? but these notes are generally great