Most common 10 mark questions plans

10 mark questions plans 

Rocks and weathering 

Human activities on slopes: 

  • Mining/quarrying exposes rocks to weathering 

  • Surface can be affected by dumping waste e.g. Aberfan, Wales 1966. 

  • Lack of/planting vegetation, roots act as an anchor 

  • Construction of reservoirs can lead to slope failure e.g. Vajont Dam, Italy 1963 

  • Pollution can increase acid rain and hence increase processes such as carbonation 

  • Slopes can be undermined by roads 


Rock type/vegetation/climate affects weathering: 

  • Climate affects the type and rate of weathering and erosion 

  • Mechanical weathering is predominant in cold areas e.g. freeze thaw 

  • Chemical weathering is predominant in warm areas e.g. salt crystallisation 

  • Van’t Hoff’s law states that with every 10⁰C increase in temperature, there’s a two to three times increase in the rate of chemical weathering 

  • Vegetation stabilises slops through roots and interception of water 

  • Limestone is vulnerable to carbonation and it contains calcium carbonate 

  • Granite is prone to hydrolysis 

  • Sedimentary bedding planes found in sedimentary rock may slide along 

  • Water promotes slope failure 


River processes in relation to variations in river flow: 

  • Draw the Hjulstrom curve 

  • High velocities needed from erosion, however lower velocities are needed once the material has been eroded 

  • Laminar, helicoidal and turbulent flow if related to erosion 


Human activities leading to the prevention and amelioration of floods: 

  • River Ilston case study 

  • Modification of the river basin (deepening the channel, widening the channel) 

  • Characteristics to increase the velocity of water (straightening the river encourages laminar flow) 

  • Afforestation increases interception and therefore reduces surface run off 

  • Removed pillars underneath the bridges to prevent damming 

  • Washland (sacrificial land especially used for farming) 

  • Canalisation (concrete on the river bed to reduce turbulent and helicoidal flow) 

  • Gauge for flood prevention and warning 

To what extent can human activities bring about both flooding and low flow in a river basin? 

  • Human activities can create conditions influence flooding by creating conditions that increase overland flow, and could therefore bring about over-bankfull conditions (urbanisation and deforestation) 

  • Climate change can potentially lead to certain areas to experience more frequent and more intense storms that can lead


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